Second Lesson: family


In this lesson we learn family members.


Jim and Bess are married. They are husband and wife.

Jim is Bess’s husband. Bess is Jim’s wife.


Jim and Bess have two (grown) children: Mary and Ed.

Mary is their daughter, Ed is their son.

Jim and Bess are the parents of Mary and Ed.


Ed and Mary are brother and sister.

Ed is Mary’s younger brother*.

Mary is Ed’s older sister.


Mary has a husband: Larry.

Mary and Larry have a daughter: Emma.

They also have a son: Jacob.


Larry is not the son of Jim and Bess.

However, they are relatives, because he is married to their daughter, Mary.

Jim is Larry’s “father in law”. Bess is Larry’s “mother in law”.


Ed is married to Sarah.

Ed is Sarah’s husband and Sarah is Ed’s wife.


Ed and Sarah have two children, Tony and Tommy.

They are both sons, because they are both male. Tony and Tommy are brothers.


Mary, who is Ed’s sister, is the aunt of Tony and Tommy.

Larry is their uncle.

Tony and Tommy are Mary’s nephews.


Ed is the uncle of Emma and Jacob.

Sarah is their aunt.

Emma and Jacob are Ed’s nephews.


For Emma, Jacob, Tony and Tommy, Jim and Bess are grandfather and grandmother.

Emma, Jacob, Tony and Tommy are the grandchildren of Jim and Bess.


Emma and Jacob are cousins with Tony and Tommy. Both males and females are cousins.


*Some languages, such as standard Chinese, have different words for older and younger brothers and sisters. In English, brother (or sister) can mean both the older and the younger one.



Ann is my mother. I am her ………

Bob is my brother. Ann is his …………

Ann has a ………… . We are her nephews.


How many brothers do you have? How many sisters?


Practice, and see you next lesson!



First Lesson: presentations


I am John. My name is John.

What is your name?

My name is …………..


I am from Great Britain. I am British.

Where are you from?

I am from ……….


I live in London.

Where do you live?

I live in …………

How old are you?

I am 20 years old.

And you?

I am …. years old.

Do you have any brothers or sisters?

Only one sister. Her name is Martha.

I have …. brothers and …. sisters.

It is late, I must go.



And see you soon!

Grammar & vocabulary

In this lesson, we already use many English words.

Some, called “pronouns”, are for persons:

I                                     io

You                               tu

He / She / It                lui / lei / esso

We                                noi

You                               voi

They                             loro / essi

Some, called “verbs”, are for actions and situations. They change slightly for each person:

                      I              You           He/She/It           We           You         They      Translation
Be               am             are                 is                     are            are           are            Essere
Live            live            live                lives               live            live          live           Vivere
Have          have          have              haves             have          have        have         Avere
Use             use             use                uses                use            use           use           Usare
Call             call             call               calls                call            call           call          Chiamare
Change      change     change         changes       change      change    change   Cambiare
Must          must          must            must              must          must        must       Dovere
Go               go               go                  goes               go               go             go            Andare
See             see             see                 sees                see             see            see           Vedere

Many verbs change only for he/she/it: they have an “s” at the end.

He/she/it is the “third person”.

This is the end of the first lesson!